Tuesday, January 3, 2017

A Chronology of Keynes’ Life from 1925–1929

To complement my post here, there is a year-by-year chronology of important events in Keynes’ life from 1925 to 1929, along with some other major political or cultural events of the time.
Chronology of Keynes’ Life from 1925–1929
3 January 1925 – Mussolini gives a speech in the Italian Chamber of Deputies; this marks the beginning of fascist dictatorship in Italy

12 March 1925 – death of Sun Yat-sen (Premier of the Kuomintang of China 10 October 1919–12 March 1925), which leaves a vacuum in the Kuomintang

13 May 1925 – the UK Gold Standard Act of 1925 passed

20 May 1925 – C. S. Lewis elected to a fellowship in Magdalen College, Oxford

4 August 1925 – Keynes marries Lydia Lopokova at St Pancreas registry office; they take Oatlands house, near Iford for the summer

summer 1925 – Ludwig Wittgenstein visits England and stays with Keynes in Cambridge and Eccles in Manchester

August 1925 – Keynes publishes The Economic Consequences of Mr Churchill.

September 1925 – Keynes and Lydia Lopokova visited Russia for two weeks, and they went to Leningrad and Moscow. When they returned to England, they lived at 46 Gordon Square, Keynes’ London home.

October 1925 – Keynes decides to rent Tilton house near Lewes

October 1925 – J. R. R. Tolkien appointed Rawlinson and Bosworth Professor of Anglo-Saxon, with a fellowship at Pembroke College, Oxford

December 1925 – Keynes published A Short View of Russia

10 December 1925 – George Bernard Shaw awarded Nobel Prize

1926 – Frank Plumpton Ramsey becomes university lecturer in mathematics at King’s College, Cambridge; later he becomes Director of Studies in mathematics

1926 – from 1926 Ludwig Wittgenstein takes part in discussions of the Vienna Circle

January 1926 – Dennis H. Robertson publishes Banking Policy and the Price Level: An Essay in the Theory of the Trade Cycle

9 February 1926 – Keynes gives a speech at the Manchester Reform Club on “Liberalism and Labour,” in which he urged Liberals and Labour party politicians to forge a new alliance (later published in The Nation and Athenaeum on 20 February, 1926)

19 March 1926 – Keynes has lunch with Beatrice Webb and Bernard Shaw, and later stricks up a new-found friendship with them

20 March 1926 – the Canton Coup (or Zhongshan Incident), the purge of Communists in the Chinese Nationalist army in Guangzhou by Chiang Kai-shek

3 March 1926 – Keynes took possession of Tilton house, South Downs near Lewes, which he had rented on a 21 year lease. In future years, Keynes and Lydia would spend their Christmas and Easter holidays and two and a half months during the summer

April 1926 – Keynes takes a holiday in Andalucía, Spain

4–13 May 1926 – the 1926 general strike in the United Kingdom, called by the General Council of the Trades Union Congress (TUC) opposing the British government’s wage reduction for 1.2 million locked-out coal miners

summer 1926 – Keynes at Cambridge; Ludwig Lachmann visits the University of Zurich and becomes interested in Austrian economics

5 June 1926 – Chiang Kai-shek named commander-in-chief of the Chinese National Revolutionary Army

June 1926 – Keynes visited Berlin and gave a lecture at the University of Berlin

6–7 June 1926 – Keynes and Lydia visit David Lloyd George for the weekend at Churt, Surrey

July 1926 – Hogarth Press publishes The End of Laissez-Faire by John Maynard Keynes

7 August 1926 – John Maynard Keynes gives a speech to the ILP Summer School on the “The Future Balance of British Industry”

25 September 1926 – Keynes and fourteen others meet with David Lloyd George at Churt to discuss a new radical Liberal program, as part of Lloyd George’s attempt to revive the dying Liberal party

October 1926 – Anthony Blunt arrives at Cambridge

8 November 1926 – arrest of Antonio Gramsci by Italian fascists

22 November 1926 – Keynes visited Manchester by invitation of the Short-Time Committee of the Federation of Master Cotton Spinners

December 1926 – Piero Sraffa publishes “The Laws of Returns under Competitive Conditions” in the Economic Journal (vol. 36, 1926).

5 January 1927 – Keynes gives a speech to the National Liberal Club on “Liberalism and Industry,” describing his research into British industrial decline

7 January 1927 – the first transatlantic telephone call from New York City to London

10 January 1927 – release date of the German expressionist science fiction film Metropolis, directed by Fritz Lang

February 1927 – Keynes resigns from the University Council of Cambridge but was still bursar and was very much involved with College affairs

April 1927 – Nicholas Kaldor arrived in London to study at the LSE; Kaldor enrols for a BSc. in economics from October 1927

May 1927 – Lydia Lopokova, the wife of Keynes, possibly suffers a miscarriage

20–21 May 1927 – Charles Lindbergh makes the first non-stop trans-Atlantic flight from New York to Paris in the monoplane Spirit of St. Louis

July 1927 – Keynes oversees the Liberal Summer School at Cambridge, which was attended by David Lloyd George, who was now the leading figure in the Liberal party

July 1927 – the Italian economist Piero Sraffa arrives in London after fleeing Italy. Sraffa accepted an offer by Keynes to take a lectureship at Cambridge university

1 August 1927–22 December 1936 – first phase of Chinese Civil War between the Kuomintang (KMT) government of the Republic of China and the Communist Party of China (CPC)

autumn 1927 – Richard Kahn was attending lectures at Cambridge and became Keynes’ student

September 1927 – Bertrand Russell and Dora Russell (Dora Black) rent Telegraph House at Harting near Petersfield in Hampshire; they set up an experimental school at Beacon Hill; Russell involved from 1927 to 1932

6 October 1927 – the release date of The Jazz Singer, the first feature-length motion picture with synchronized sound, directed by Alan Crosland and produced by Warner Bros

15 February 1928 – death of Herbert Henry Asquith, a friend of Keynes

22 February 1928 – the Liberal Industrial Inquiry had published the report called Britain’s Industrial Future in five books; Keynes had contributed to Books 2 and 5

7 March – beginning of the Shakhty Trial in the Soviet Union; Soviet police arrest engineers in the town of Shakhty, who are accused of sabotaging the Soviet economy

27 March 1928 – Keynes gives a speech at the National Liberal Federation endorsing Lloyd George’s public works plan

3 May–11 May 1928 – the Jinan incident, armed conflict between the Japanese Army (with Northern Chinese warlords) and the Kuomintang’s southern army in Jinan, the capital of Shandong

May 1928 – Anthony Blunt elected to the Cambridge Apostles

July 1928 – Joan Robinson arrives in London from India

31 July 1928 – Keynes continues to support Lloyd George in an opinion piece in the Evening Standard

27 August 1928 – the Kellogg–Briand Pact (or Pact of Paris) is signed by Germany, France, and the United States, a treaty that outlaws aggressive warfare

1 October 1928 – Stalin announces the First Five Year Plan

10 October 1928 – Chiang Kai-shek becomes director of the Chinese State Council

16 October 1928 – Keynes gives a speech at the Cambridge Union

6 November 1928 – the US presidential election of 1928, between the Secretary of Commerce Herbert Hoover (Republican) and New York Governor Al Smith (Democratic)

1929–1931 – the Untouchables under Eliot Ness work to end crimes of Al Capone by enforcing Prohibition laws

January 1929 – Ludwig Wittgenstein returned to Cambridge

February 1929 – Trotsky deported from the Soviet Union; he lives in Turkey from 1929 to 1933; in France from 1933 to 1935; in Norway from 1935 to 1936; in Mexico from 1936 to 1940

14 February 1929 – the Saint Valentine’s Day Massacre in Chicago

4 March 1929 – Herbert Hoover is inaugurated as 31st President of the United States (president from 4 March 1929–4 March 1933)

7 March 1929 – Keynes visits the UK Treasury and recommends raising the bank rate to attract more capital from abroad

10 May 1929 – Hubert Henderson and John Maynard Keynes publish Can Lloyd George do it?, a pamphlet in support of the Liberal program of deficit spending urged by David Lloyd George

16 May 1929 – the 1st Academy Awards ceremony, presented by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences (AMPAS) for the best films of 1927 and 1928, held at the Hollywood Roosevelt Hotel in Los Angeles, California

30 May 1929 – 1929 United Kingdom general election was held; Winston Churchill stands as MP for Unionists. The results:
Party | Leader | Seats Won
Conservative | Stanley Baldwin | 260
Labour | Ramsay MacDonald | 287
Liberal | David Lloyd George | 59.
The UK Labour Party under Ramsay MacDonald wins 287 seats, the most seats

June 1929 – Ludwig Wittgenstein submits his Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus (published in 1921) at Cambridge for a PhD

5 June 1929–7 June 1935 – Ramsay MacDonald is British Prime Minister

7 June 1929 – a Committee headed by American industrialist Owen D. Young submits its first report with the Young Plan, a program for settling German reparations debts after World War I

August 1929–March 1933 – the contractionary phase of the US Great Depression

October 1929 – Kim Philby goes to Trinity College, Cambridge to read History and Economics

October 1929 – Winston Churchill in New York

October 1929 – A. J. Ayer goes up to Christ Church College, Oxford

October 1929 – Joan Robinson and Austin Robinson return to Cambridge; from 1929–1930 Joan Robinson attends Piero Sraffa’s lectures

24 October 1929 – “Black Thursday” on the New York stock exchange, the beginning of the US Stock Market Crash of 1929

29 October 1929 – “Black Tuesday” on the New York stock exchange, the Wall Street Crash of 1929.
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