Thursday, March 1, 2012

Post Keynesian Economists: A List


Just who exactly is a Post Keynesian economist? I will start a list below and update it as required. I have based this list partly on this interesting article and list here. I will include Modern Monetary Theorists as economists obviously related to Post Keynesians, and indeed at least one of the leading MMTers says explicitly that MMT emerged from Post Keynesianism.

It should be borne in mind that a number of the members of the “Circus” (Keynes’s friends and followers at Cambridge) and associates of the “Circus Generation” were not strictly speaking Post Keynesians, but precursors or Neoclassical Synthesis Keynesians. And no doubt there are bound to be omissions and errors.

Michal Kalecki (1899–1970) represents an important second influence on later Post Keynesianism.

Post Keynesian Economists
John Maynard Keynes (1883–1946)

Five Members of Keynes’s “Circus”
E. Austin G. Robinson (1897–1993)
Joan Robinson (1903–1983), Lecturer (1937–1965), Professor of Economics (1965–1983), Cambridge
Richard F. Kahn (1905–1989), Lecturer (1933-1951) and Professor of Economics (1951-1989), Cambridge
Piero Sraffa (1898–1983)
James E. Meade (1907–1995)

Associates of the Circus Generation
Henry Roy F. Harrod (1900–1978), Lecturer in Economics (1922-1967) Christ Church, Oxford
Michal Kalecki (1899–1970)
Nicholas Kaldor (1908–1986), Fellow of King’s College, Cambridge 1949-1986, Professor 1966-1986
Abba P. Lerner (1903–1982), 1934–1935 at Cambridge
John R. Hicks (1904–1989)
Maurice H. Dobb (1900–1976)
Lorie Tarshis (1911–1993)
Evsey D. Domar (1914–1997)
Sir Richard Stone (1913–1991)
George L. S. Shackle (1903–1992)

Later Post Keynesians (including some Sraffians)
Richard M. Goodwin (1913–1997)
Paolo Sylos-Labini
Wynne F. Godley (1926–2010)
Luigi L. Pasinetti (1930–)
Pierangelo Garegnani (1930–2011)
Geoffrey C. Harcourt (1931– )
John Eatwell (1945– )
Krishna R. Bharadwaj (1935–1992)
Athanasios Asimakopulos (1930–1990)
Amit Bhaduri (1938– )
Ajit Singh (1940– )
Jan A. Kregel (1944– )

Piero Sraffa (1898–1983)
Luigi L. Pasinetti (1930– )
Pierangelo Garegnani (1930–2011)
John Eatwell (1945– )
Ian Steedman (1941– ), Emeritus Professor, Manchester Metropolitan University
Krishna R. Bharadwaj (1935–1992)
Giovanni Caravale (1935–1997)
Domenico M. Nuti (1937– )
Heinz D. Kurz (1946– ), University of Graz, Austria
Neri Salvadori, University of Pisa
Bertram Schefold (1943– ), Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universität (Frankfurt am Main)
Alessandro Roncaglia
Luciano Boggio
Carlo Panico

American Post Keynesians
Sidney Weintraub (1914–1983)
Paul Davidson (1930– )
Alfred S. Eichner (1937–1988)
Hyman P. Minsky (1919–1996), N.B. Davidson disputes Minksy’s classification as a Post Keynesian
Thomas I. Palley, New America Foundation
Robert N. Pollin (1950– )
Steven Pressman (1952– )

Other Post Keynesians
Alain Barrère (1910–1995)
Josef Steindl (1912–1993), Austria
John M. Blatt (1921–1990), mathematician with Post Keynesian interests
William Spencer Vickrey (1914–1996), Columbia University
Victoria Chick (1936– ), University College London
Basil J. Moore, Wesleyan University (Connecticut, US)
John Pheby (1949–2008)
Ingrid H. Rima, Temple University
Sheila C. Dow, University of Stirling
Gary Dimsky
Eileen Appelbaum, Center for Economic and Policy Research
Malcolm Sawyer, University of Leeds (UK)
Philip Arestis, University of Cambridge
Richard P. F. Holt (“Ric” Holt), Southern Oregon University
John Cornwall, Dalhousie University
Marc Lavoie (1954– ), University of Ottawa
Mark Hayes (Robinson College, Cambridge)
John Barkley Rosser, Jr. (1948– )
Steve Keen, University of Western Sydney
Matías Vernengo, University of Utah
Alan G. Isaac, American University, Washington, DC.
Robert Blecker, American University, Washington, DC.
Fernando Carvalho
Sergio Cesaratto, University of Siena
Jane D’Arista
Gerald “Jerry” A. Epstein, University of Massachusetts, Amherst
Ilene Grabel, University of Denver
John T. Harvey (1961– ), Texas Christian University
Eckhard Hein, Berlin School of Economics and Law
Alex Izurieta
William Milberg, Professor and Chair, New School for Social Research in New York
Gary Mongiovi, St. John’s University
Esteban Pérez Caldente
Jaime Ros, University of Notre Dame
Robert “Bob” Rowthorn (sometimes classified as a Marxist), Emeritus Professor and Fellow of King’s College, Cambridge
Franklin L. P. Serrano
Leonardo Vera, Universidad Central de Venezuela
Amitava Krishna Dutt
James Crotty, University of Massachusetts Amherst, Amherst
Mark Setterfield, Trinity College, Hartford, CT (US)
Edward J. Nell (1935– ), New School for Social Research (NY)

Modern Monetary Theorists and Supporters (both academic and non-academic)
Warren Mosler (1949– )
L. Randall Wray, University of Missouri-Kansas City
William F. “Bill” Mitchell (1952– ), University of Newcastle (Australia)
Jan Kregel (?)
Pavlina R. Tcherneva, Franklin and Marshall College
Stephanie A. Kelton (formerly Stephanie Bell)
Mathew Forstater, University of Missouri-Kansas City
Scott T. Fullwiler, Wartburg College, Waverly, Iowa
Mike Norman
Marshall Auerback


Richard P.F. Holt’s Web Site.

Ric Holt, “What is Post Keynesian Economics?”

Barkley Rosser’s Home Page.

Mark Hayes’s Staff Page.

Thomas Palley’s Blog.

Sheila Dow’s Staff Page.

Malcolm Sawyer’s Web Page.

Professor Crotty’s Web Page.


  1. Related, the Washington Post created this nice tree chart showing different macroeconomic schools and their most important members:

  2. I would add Robert Blecker and Alan Isaac, both of American University.

  3. This is FANTASTIC stuff, thank you for the list and to Ivan for the note above. I would like to add two things:

    1) I am facinated to learn more about MMT, and have read many articles, but still can't figure it out except that adherents to theory seem to believe that a government can never go broke if it controls its own currency and that it can print as much money as it wants.

    2) Second, he is not an economist, but this chap Cullen Roche writes this blog - It is extremely popular, and seems to be one of the leading MMT blogs out there going back several years. Its intreresting, but as mentioned, still really hard to figure out!

    1. 1. Its a misrepresentation of MMT to say we can print as much as we like, its more complex than that.

      2. Although I love pragcap and Cullen is a nice guy he is not MMT (at least let that can of worms stay closed but hes definately post keynesian)shame really his primer was really good but now changed.

  4. Jan said: Thank you Lord Keynes.A good deed.It´s a impressive list of great economists,that people should be aware of.One feel to be in precence of greatness,when reading.

  5. Lord Keynes: Have you read any of John Cornwall's work? One of the professors at Trinity College, the Post-Keynesian economist Mark Setterfield, had him on his dissertation committee.

    1. Yep, John and Wendy Cornwall are also great. Their book Capitalist Development in the Twentieth Century is an essential reading. Link here

  6. Several have more than one hat (I think, maybe I'm wrong only Kregel appears in two). Ed Nell, for example, could be also in Later Post Keynesians (he was a student of Hicks in the 1960s at Oxford), or in American Post Keynesians. Beyond Alan Isaac, and Robert Blecker, as cited above, Fernando Carvalho, Sergio cesaratto, Jane D'Arista, Amittava Dutt, Jerry Epstein, James Galbraith, Ilene Grabel, John Harvey, Eckhard Hein, Alex Izurieta, Will Milberg, Gary Mongiovi, José Antonio Ocampo, Esteban Pérez, Ingrid Rima, Jaime Ros, bob Rowthron, Franklin Serrano, Lance Taylor, Leonardo Vera would also enter my list (I'm sure there are many more that I'm leaving out). no list can be complete, and all lists must exclude somebody I know. Great list anyway. Thanks.

  7. Thank you everybody,

    I have now updated and expanded the list to take account of the new additions.

    One question, though: is Lance Taylor really a Post Keynesian? I always thought he was a New Keynesian (I could be completely wrong, of course)

  8. Also does anyone know if Dudley Dillard or Fiona Maclachlan are Post Keynesians?

    1. Dudley Dillard is another Post Keynesian Institutionalist (such as Bob Brazelton, Randy Wray, Fred Lee, Douglas Vickers etc.). Fiona MacLachlan is an Austrian Post Keynesian, along the lines of people such as G. L. S. Shackle, Ludwig Lachmann, O'Driscoll and Rizzo, etc.

  9. Great reading I hope I get some time to review some of these writers.

    Just so people know, post-keynesian economics is mentioned in some intro to economics textbooks. I hope it is a school on the rise.


  10. How about James Crotty?


  11. Jan said: I will add to the list Professor William Vickrey at Columbia,1996 awarded the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economics.Although he worked over many field in economics he defined him self as Post Keynsian as well as a Georgist.One of his last papers in life,1996 is a classic defence of the demand side economics against the at that time dominant deficit hawks,well worth reading still today Fifteen Fatal Fallacies of Financial Fundamentalism: A Disquisition on Demand Side Economics

  12. Dean Baker uses IS-LM models, which indicates he might be a little more towards the neoclassical side than was once thought (Steve Keen regards him as a New Keynesian). However, based on my email correspondence with him, he regards the endogenous money model as accurate (but believes that controlling interest rates still has a major effect). And he is also open to the idea of a debt jubilee, indicating that he is at least somewhat attentive to the effects of excessive private debt on aggregate demand.

    So Baker is more Post-Keynesian than Krugman, but still maybe leans toward the NK side.

  13. A few missing and a few others here: